University of Hamburg

Fall 17/18: Mereology

      Undergraduate (Hauptseminar)

Mereology (from the Greek meros, ‘part’) is the theory that studies the relations between the parts and the whole. Originally formulated by Stanislaw Leśniewski, and made then popular by Leonard and Goodman’s article ‘The calculus of individuals’, mereology plays today a central and essential role in analytic metaphysics. The aim of this course is to provide a gentle introduction to both the most relevant formal aspects of mereology and the most important philosophical issues with which it deals. The first part of the course will be dedicated to introducing the main mereological notions and to presenting the main principles characterising the so-called ‘classical mereology’. In the second part, we will discuss the most pressing philosophical issues surrounding classical mereology. Among others, we will focus on the following questions in particular: Can two objects have exactly the same parts? Does any collection of objects compose something else? Is a whole an ‘addition of being’ with respect to its parts taken together?

Fall 17/18: Introduction to Philosophy of Time

    Undergraduate (Proseminar)

Is temporal passage real? Does time really ‘pass’ or ‘flow’, or have some kind of ‘dynamical’ feature? Do past and future entities exist, or is reality exhausted only by what presently exists? What is the nature of change? Is it possible to time-travel to the past and thereby change it? Is the future open and unsettled in a way that the past is not? During this introductory course we will aim to discuss these and other questions animating the contemporary debate on time and temporal passage in analytic metaphysics. Particular attention will be devoted to the following topics: (i) the distinction between ‘A-theories’ and ‘B-theories’ of time; (ii) the so-called ‘McTaggart’s paradox’; (iii) the ‘grounding problem’ for presentists; (iv) the problem of change; (v) the paradoxes of time-travel; (iv) the problem of future contingents.

University of Barcelona

Fall 16/17: Topics in ontology


Much of the recent debate in metaphysics is animated by the notion of fundamentality and the distinction between a fundamental level of reality and possibly many derivative ones metaphysically depending on it. The main aim of this course is to examine and discuss some of the leading approaches to the notion of fundamentality. Among others, we will address the following questions: (i) What does it mean to say that something is ‘fundamental’, or belongs to the ‘fundamental level’ of reality? (ii) What does it mean for something to metaphysically depend on something else? (iii) Why do we need to distinguish between what is fundamental  and what is derivative? (iv) What is the relationship between ontology and fundamental ontology? (v) Is there a fundamental level of reality? 

UNAM (Mexico City):

Spring 13/14 : Ontology

       Undergraduate, co-taught with José Edgar González Varela, [in Spanish]

Fall 13/14: Presentism and the grounding objection


The contemporary debate in metaphysics of time is divided in two main camps. A-theorists uphold the reality of temporal passage and the existence of a metaphysically privileged time (the present). Instead, B-theorists deny that time literally ‘passes’ and claim that past, present, and future all exist, with no time being privileged over the others. Presentism is often presented as being the most commonsensical and intuitive theory among the A-theories of time. According to presentists, only present entities exist and instantiate properties and relations. There are no past or future entities, although there were entities that do not exist now, and, most likely, there will be entities that still do not exist. The idea that past and future do not exist does appear to have a certain pre-theoretical pull. However, it is also cause for some important and resilient theoretical problems. One of the most important objections to presentism is, in fact, represented by the so-called grounding objection. Truth, we intuitively feel, cannot ‘float on the void’, but must—somehow—depend on how reality is, that is, either on what entities exist, or on what pattern of properties and relations they instantiate. Truth, in other words, must be grounded in reality. If, however, only present entities exist, as presentists claim, what can systematically ground truths about the past?
The aim of this seminar is to thoroughly discuss the grounding objection to presentism, and to understand its import within the contemporary debate about the reality of temporal passage. Different grounding theories for presentism will be examined and discussed. In the process it will be investigated when and how a specific ontological posit might constitute an ‘ontological cheat’. Particular attention will be devoted to the question about whether modal principles (such as the truth-maker principle and the supervenience principle) are sufficient to capture the notion of grounding, or whether such a notion requires a finer-grained analysis.